Statistics Insights: Inflation is an interactive
publication produced by the European Central Bank and the
national central banks of the Eurosystem. The publication
aims to make it easier to understand, use and compare euro
area and national statistics. It presents the statistics
visually, catering for colour blindness, uses
reader-friendly terms, is digitally reusable via the embed
function and is available in 23 EU languages.
Information on data
The data are updated in real time and available from the
Statistical Data Warehouse.
The inflation data are produced by Eurostat, together with
the national statistical institutes, and are available
The data for the second chart in Section 3.1 and the
charts in Section 3.2 are produced by the European
Commission’s Directorate-General for Economic and
Financial Affairs and are available
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
person obtaining a copy of the work and associated
documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the
Software without restriction (with the exception of the
personal inflation calculator that cannot be used for any
commercial purpose, including distributing, sublicensing
and/or selling copies of original or modified code),
including without limitation the rights to use, copy,
modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following
The software is provided “as is”, without warranty of any
In no event shall the authors or copyright holders be
liable for any claim, damages or other liability, whether
in an action of contract, tort or otherwise, arising from,
out of or in connection with the Software or the use of or
other dealings in the Software.
The Software is built upon and made available by Eurostat
and Lietuvos bankas. See also the
The ECB/Eurostat/Lietuvos bankas take no responsibility
for any replication of the content of the Software, or any
other form of redistribution.
Cover photo © monticello, Xsandra, guenterguni, Rost-9D,
Chapter 2.2 photo “Antique refrigerator” © jgroup/iStock
Chapter 2.2 photo “Modern household refrigerator with
control display” © Grassetto/iStock
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is committed
to providing its statistics free of charge as a public
good of high quality irrespective of any subsequent
commercial or non-commercial use. All publicly available
ESCB statistics may be reused free of charge on the
condition that the source is quoted (e.g. “Source: euro
area statistics”) and that the statistics (including
metadata) are not modified.
Nationale Bank van België/Banque Nationale de
Central Bank of Ireland
Bank of Greece
Banco de España
Banque de France
Central Bank of Cyprus
Banque centrale du Luxembourg
Bank Ċentrali ta’ Malta/Central Bank of Malta
De Nederlandsche Bank
Banco de Portugal
Národná banka Slovenska
Suomen Pankki – Finlands Bank
As we buy goods and services and observe their prices, we
get a sense of how fast and how much these prices change.
But quite often our perceptions do not match the official
inflation figures. How can measured inflation remain low
although prices for fresh vegetables are soaring and the
media is reporting large increases in rents in big cities?
The following sections try to explain inflation
perceptions and why they differ from measured inflation.
Opinions about rising prices are as old as money itself.
Today they are often documented in surveys, which report
that people’s perceptions of inflation are frequently
higher than measured inflation.
But why is this the case? Research has found the following
possible answers to this question:
Use the visuals to see the inflation rates for different
products in the HICP basket.
Click to enlarge and interact
Click to enlarge and interact